For centuries free chlorine has been effectively used as a disinfectant to prevent the spread of water-borne diseases. Studies have found that a minimum of 0.2 mg L−1
of chlorine should be maintained within the distribution system so as to prevent any risk to human health. However, maintaining 0.2 mg L−1
of free chlorine within the distribution system is a challenging task. Addition of high-dose chlorine lends the water an odour and leads to other health-related problems to upstream consumers.