Journal cover Journal topic
Drinking Water Engineering and Science An interactive open-access journal

Journal metrics

  • CiteScore<br/> value: 0.79 CiteScore
  • SNIP value: 0.813 SNIP 0.813
  • SJR value: 0.228 SJR 0.228
  • IPP value: 0.719 IPP 0.719
Drink. Water Eng. Sci., 6, 99-114, 2013
© Author(s) 2013. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
31 Oct 2013
Non-residential water demand model validated with extensive measurements and surveys
E. J. Pieterse-Quirijns1, E. J. M. Blokker1, E. van der Blom2, and J. H. G. Vreeburg1,3 1KWR Watercycle Research Institute, P.O. Box 1072, 3430 BB Nieuwegein, the Netherlands
2Uneto-VNI, P.O. Box 188, 2700 AD Zoetermeer, the Netherlands
3Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, P.O. Box 5048, 2600 GA Delft, the Netherlands
Abstract. Existing Dutch guidelines for the design of the drinking water and hot water system of non-residential buildings are based on outdated assumptions on peak water demand or on unfounded assumptions on hot water demand. They generally overestimate peak demand values required for the design of an efficient and reliable water system. Recently, a procedure was developed based on the end-use model SIMDEUM to derive design-demand-equations for peak demand values of both cold and hot water during various time steps for several types and sizes of non-residential buildings, viz. offices, hotels and nursing homes. In this paper, the design-demand-equations are validated with measurements of cold and hot water patterns on a per second base and with surveys. The good correlation between the simulated water demand patterns and the measured patterns indicates that the basis of the design-demand-equations, the SIMDEUM simulated standardised buildings, is solid. Surveys were held to investigate whether the construction of the standardised buildings based on the dominant variable corresponds with practice. Surveys show that it is difficult to find relationships to equip the standardised buildings with users and appliances. However, the validation proves that with a proper estimation of the number of users and appliances in only the dominant functional room of the standardised buildings, SIMDEUM renders a realistic cold and hot water diurnal demand pattern. Furthermore, the new design-demand-equations based on these standardised buildings give a better prediction of the measured peak values for cold water flow than the existing guidelines. Moreover, the new design-demand-equations can predict hot water use well. In this paper it is illustrated that the new design-demand-equations lead to reliable and improved designs of building installations and water heater capacity, resulting in more hygienic and economical installations.

Citation: Pieterse-Quirijns, E. J., Blokker, E. J. M., van der Blom, E., and Vreeburg, J. H. G.: Non-residential water demand model validated with extensive measurements and surveys, Drink. Water Eng. Sci., 6, 99-114, doi:10.5194/dwes-6-99-2013, 2013.
Publications Copernicus
Special issue